Menstrual ABC

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There are cur­r­ently 109 names in this directory
Widespread endo­me­trio­sis in the uterus.

Agnus Cas­tus
Is a medi­ci­nal plant that is taken for the natu­ral tre­at­ment of irre­gu­lar, too fre­quent or too rare mens­trua­tion. The extract of the ripe, dried fruits influ­en­ces the hor­mo­nal balance and is medi­cally approved.

Absence or lack of menstruation.

Absence or lack of ovulation.

Ano­vu­la­tory cycle
No egg is released during the mens­trual cycle.

Anti-Muel­ler hor­mone (AMH)
The AMH level indi­ca­tes how many egg cells are still in the body and whe­ther ovu­la­tion has occur­red. It is an important indi­ca­tor in repro­duc­tive health 

Basal body tem­pe­ra­ture
Body tem­pe­ra­ture mea­su­red in the morning immedia­tely after waking up and before get­ting up. The basal body tem­pe­ra­ture chan­ges during the mens­trual cycle. Shortly after ovu­la­tion, it rises by a few tenths of a degree for at least three days in a row. This way ovu­la­tion and fer­tile days can be deter­mi­ned retro­spec­tively. In this way, the fol­lowing infer­tile days can be deter­mi­ned as well. Mea­su­ring the basal body tem­pe­ra­ture is part of the tem­pe­ra­ture method for natu­ral contraception.

Bil­lings method
A method of natu­ral con­tracep­tion that obser­ves the change in the com­po­si­tion of cer­vi­cal mucus during the mens­trual cycle. Shortly before and around ovu­la­tion the con­sis­tency of the mucus chan­ges, which allows the fer­tile days of the cycle to be determined.

Binary gen­der sys­tem
Assump­tion that there are only two sexes (male or female).

Cer­vi­cal mucus
The milky-white to trans­pa­rent secre­tion con­sists of rejec­ted cells and water and flows out of the vagina. The daily discharge is part of the natu­ral pro­cess of a healthy mens­trual cycle and is pro­du­ced by glands in the cer­vix. During the mens­trual cycle, both colour and con­sis­tency of the cer­vi­cal mucus change. It pro­tects the ute­rus from germs. 

Cer­vi­cal smear
The cer­vi­cal smear is taken in the lower part of the cer­vi­cal canal, often during the annual check-up with the gynae­co­lo­gist. Among other things, the smear is used for the early detec­tion of cer­vi­cal cancer.

The cer­vix is the con­nec­tion bet­ween the ute­rus and the vagina. The nar­row sec­tion makes up the lower third of the ute­rus and pro­jects as the ope­ning of the cer­vix into the upper part of the vagina. The nar­row ope­ning, sur­roun­ded by mucous mem­brane, pro­tects the ute­rus from germs.

Cer­vix ope­ning
Ope­ning of the ute­rus. The ute­rine canal opens into the vagina.

Cis-women or Cis-man
People who iden­tify with the sex to which they were assi­gned at birth.

Years of hor­mo­nal chan­ges, before and after the meno­pause. It is the tran­si­tion from the fer­tile to the post­me­no­pau­sal phase in the life of a mens­trua­ting per­son. Due to the decre­a­sing est­ro­gen level, meno­pause often brings about fluc­tua­tions in the mens­trual cycle. 

Sexual organ, the small part of which is visi­ble on the out­side at the upper end of the labia. It con­sists of two thighs which con­nect to the front of the body and lie inside the body. The cli­to­ris strai­gh­tens up during sexual arou­sal due to the erec­tile tissue.

Cloth pad
Reus­able pads are worn during mens­trua­tion to absorb the mens­trual blood out­side the body. They con­sist of dif­fe­rent lay­ers of absor­bent mate­rial and are often made of cot­ton or hemp. They are was­hed after use and can be reu­sed. Fab­ric pads are the sus­tainable ver­sion of dis­po­sable pads because they can be used for many years. 

Cloth panty liners
Reus­able panty liners are worn during light blee­ding to absorb the mens­trual fluid out­side the body. They are thin­ner and ligh­ter than cloth pads and are also made of cot­ton. Fab­ric panty liners are the sus­tainable ver­sion of dis­po­sable panty liners because they can be used for many years. 

Cloth tam­pons
The slightly dif­fe­rent and less known tam­pon ver­sion. Like other tam­pons, cloth tam­pons are inser­ted into the vagina where they absorb the mens­trual blood directly. They are then was­hed and can be used again.

Cycle apps
Cycle apps help you to observe and bet­ter under­stand your own cycle. Based on the data ent­e­red, the app cal­cu­la­tes the next period or the period for several mon­ths in advance. The first and last day of your mens­trua­tion are mar­ked in the apps. In the course of the mens­trual cycle, other cha­rac­te­ris­tics such as mood, sym­ptoms or tem­pe­ra­ture can also be noted.

Cycle awa­reness
Per­cei­ving the body as a cycli­cal being and lear­ning what influ­ence the cycle-rela­ted hor­mo­nes have on needs and mood. To bet­ter under­stand the dif­fe­rent pha­ses of the cycle and the asso­cia­ted qua­li­ties and to con­sciously inte­grate them into ever­y­day life.

Cycle com­pu­ter
Mea­su­ring devices with which mens­trua­ting people can deter­mine the fer­tile and infer­tile days. They digi­tally sup­port the methods of hor­mone-free con­tracep­tion. For this pur­pose, various body cha­rac­te­ris­tics, such as basal body tem­pe­ra­ture, hor­mo­nes in the morning urine and the con­sis­tency of the cer­vi­cal mucus are recor­ded and ana­ly­sed. Regu­lar and con­sci­en­tious use must be ensu­red so that the cycle com­pu­ter can inter­pret the mea­su­red values correctly. 

Cycle dis­or­der
Chan­ges in the natu­ral mens­trual cycle that deviate from the norm. This inclu­des the dura­tion, strength or rhythm of menstruation. 

Cycle length
Time from the first day of mens­trua­tion to the day before the mens­trua­tion starts again. Usually it lasts bet­ween 25 and 34 days.

Cycle pha­ses
The mens­trual cycle is divi­ded into two pha­ses: The first half of the cycle is cal­led the fol­li­cu­lar phase. It takes place bet­ween the begin­ning of mens­trua­tion and the next ovu­la­tion. The second half of the cycle is cal­led the luteal phase. It takes place bet­ween ovu­la­tion and the next menstruation. 

Cycle tracking
Con­scious obser­va­tion of the mens­trual cycle. In addi­tion to the begin­ning and end of mens­trua­tion, other cha­rac­te­ris­tics such as mood, sym­ptoms or tem­pe­ra­ture are also regis­tered. Cycle tracking can be done eit­her ana­log in a mens­trual calen­dar or digi­tally in cycle apps. The aim of cycle tracking is to gain a bet­ter under­stan­ding of your own body and the chan­ges cau­sed by your cycle. 

Pain­ful or dif­fi­cult mens­trua­tion with sym­ptoms such as cramps and pain in the abdomen.

Sex cell con­tai­ning all the gene­tic mate­rial of a mens­trua­ting per­son that is pas­sed on to the child­ren. With the begin­ning of puberty, an egg cell matures in the ova­ries during each mens­trual cycle. Eggs are fer­ti­li­sable for a maxi­mum of 24 hours.

A chro­nic, very pain­ful dise­ase of people with a ute­rus. Out­side the ute­rine cavity, uncon­trol­led growths of the ute­rine lining form. The cau­ses for the deve­lo­p­ment of the dise­ase are still unknown. 

Important sex hor­mo­nes that are mainly pro­du­ced in the ova­ries. Est­ro­gen pro­mote the matu­ra­tion of the egg capa­ble of fer­ti­li­sa­tion and ensure that the ute­rine lining is well cir­cu­la­ted with blood. The con­cen­tra­tion of est­ro­gen in the body chan­ges signi­fi­cantly during the mens­trual cycle. 

Fallo­pian tubes
Pai­red part of the sexual organs, which start from the ute­rus on both sides and end near the respec­tive ovary. The fallo­pian tubes are lined with mucous membrane. 

Abi­lity to get pregnant per mens­trual cycle and give birth to an offspring. 

The moment in which the sperm and egg merge tog­e­ther. Fer­ti­liz­a­tion takes place in the fallo­pian tube

First period
The first mens­trual blee­ding is also cal­led men­ar­che. The begin­ning of mens­trua­tion takes place during puberty. 

Fol­li­cu­lar phase
The first phase of the mens­trual cycle in which the body pre­pa­res for fer­ti­li­sa­tion of the mature egg. The fol­licle-sti­mu­la­ting hor­mone (FSH) incre­a­ses during this phase, which even­tually enab­les ovulation. 

Free blee­ding
During mens­trua­tion, period pro­ducts such as tam­pons, pads or mens­trual cups are vol­un­ta­rily not used. The blood is the­re­fore not collec­ted by a for­eign object eit­her inside or out­side the body. It is pos­si­ble to feel when blood is com­ing by con­sciously per­cei­ving one's own body. When free blee­ding, the mens­trual blood is finally dischar­ged directly on the toi­let by rela­xing the pel­vic floor.

Gen­der star (*)
The spel­ling with the gen­der star (*) is an attempt to include the diver­sity of gen­der iden­ti­ties in the Ger­man language.

Spe­cia­list in gynae­co­logy and obstetrics.

Hor­mo­nal con­tracep­tion
Hor­mo­nal con­tracep­tive methods influ­ence the hor­mone levels and usually sup­press ovu­la­tion. The various con­tracep­ti­ves are pre­scrip­tion-only. Even if they are used dif­fer­ently, they often have very simi­lar results and can have side effects. Hor­mo­nal con­tracep­tive methods include the pill, the vagi­nal ring, IUD or the con­tracep­tive patch. When used cor­rectly, hor­mo­nal con­tracep­ti­ves pro­tect against unwan­ted pregnancy, but not against sexu­ally trans­mit­ted diseases. 

Hor­mone tes­ting
Test strips are used to mea­sure hor­mo­nes in the morning urine. This is often done to deter­mine ovulation.

The body's own bio­che­mi­cal mes­sen­gers, which are pro­du­ced by glands and trans­por­ted by blood. Hor­mo­nes regu­late various pro­ces­ses in the body. 

Mens­trua­tion that is too heavy. It is a form of mens­trual dis­or­der cha­rac­te­ri­zed by incre­a­sed blood loss during mens­trua­tion. This is the case when the blood loss per mens­trua­tion is more than 80ml. 

Mens­trua­tion that is too light. It is a form of mens­trual dis­or­der cha­rac­te­ri­zed by a weak and short mens­trual blee­ding. This is the case when the blood loss per mens­trua­tion is less than 25ml. Light blee­ding is often spotting.

Sur­gi­cal remo­val of the uterus.

Inca­pa­city to pro­create or con­ceive. In human medi­cine, infer­ti­lity occurs when a cou­ple does not con­ceive des­pite the desire to have child­ren and have had at least one year of regu­lar unpro­tec­ted sexual intercourse.

Inter­me­diate blee­ding
Blee­ding from the ute­rus out­side the actual menstruation. 

Inter­mens­trual pain
Pain that may occur at the time of ovu­la­tion (middle of the mens­trual cycle). Usually the pain is loca­li­sed on one side of the lower abdomen. 

Irre­gu­lar cycle
Mens­trual cycles that last less than 24 or more than 35 days. This also inclu­des mens­trual cycles that vary by more than eight days from cycle to cycle. 

Part of the exter­nal geni­tals. The term covers both the outer and inner labia.

Luteal phase
Second phase of the mens­trual cycle, which starts after ovu­la­tion and ends when mens­trua­tion begins. It is an infer­tile mens­trual phase. 

Mens­trua­tion stops per­ma­nently, which also ends fer­ti­lity and the pos­si­bi­lity of pregnancy. 

A mens­trua­tion that is too long, which can last up to 14 days.

Mens­trual Blood
Strictly spea­king, mens­trual blood is not just blood, but rather a mix­ture of blood, rejec­ted ute­rine lining, the unfer­ti­li­zed egg and vagi­nal mucus. Other dead cells are also found in the tis­sue mix. Only about half of the fluid con­sists of blood. 

Mens­trual cup
Small reus­able con­tai­ners that directly collect the mens­trual blood inside the body. They mostly have a cup-like shape, are made of medi­cal sili­cone and are inser­ted into the vagina. 

Mens­trual cycle
The mens­trual cycle begins with the first day of mens­trua­tion and ends with the day before the next period. It usually lasts bet­ween 25 and 34 days. It is a regu­larly occur­ring pro­cess in the body of a mens­trua­ting per­son, which is repeated about 400 times from puberty to meno­pause. The mens­trual cycle is cha­rac­te­ri­zed by hor­mo­nal changes. 

Mens­trual irre­gu­la­ri­ties
Irre­gu­la­ri­ties of the blee­ding rhythm in the mens­trual cycle. A dis­tinc­tion is made bet­ween too fre­quent and too infre­quent mens­trua­tion. / Irre­gu­la­ri­ties of the blee­ding pat­tern in the mens­trual cycle. A dis­tinc­tion is made bet­ween too heavy and too light menstruation. 

Mens­trual pro­blems
Various sym­ptoms that can occur before and during mens­trua­tion. These include, for example, cramps, nau­sea, hea­da­ches, a fee­ling of ten­sion in the bre­asts, gene­ral malaise.

Mens­trual spon­ges
Pure natu­ral pro­duct for mens­trua­tion that can be reu­sed. Basi­cally, the app­li­ca­tion is simi­lar to that of tam­pons, because they are inser­ted into the vagina where they directly collect the mens­trual blood. 

Mens­trua­ting people
Term for all people who expe­ri­ence mens­trua­tion. Because not all women mens­truate and not all mens­trua­ting people iden­tify them­sel­ves as women.

During mens­trua­tion, the lining of the ute­rus is shed each month and the mens­trual blood is dischar­ged through the vagina. It is a natu­ral, regu­lar and bio­lo­gi­cal pro­cess that sym­bo­li­zes the health and fer­ti­lity of a mens­trua­ting per­son. The mens­trual period lasts on average about 5 days. Mens­trua­tion is also cal­led period or bleeding.

Mons pubis
Slight hilly ele­va­tion just above the labia, cau­sed by an accu­mu­la­tion of fatty tis­sue. From puberty onwards, hair grows on here.

Mood swings
During the mens­trual cycle, various hor­mo­nes are invol­ved to vary­ing degrees, resul­ting in natu­ral mood swings. Depen­ding on the phase of the cycle a per­son is in, the emo­tio­nal situa­tion also changes. 

Natu­ral family plan­ning (NFP)
Inclu­des all con­tracep­tive methods that do not affect hor­mo­nes or the body in gene­ral. There are the­re­fore no side effects. Natu­ral con­tracep­tive methods are based on the mens­trual cycle and deter­mine both the fer­tile and infer­tile days of a mens­trua­ting per­son. Fer­ti­li­sa­tion of the egg is pre­ven­ted without the help of arti­fi­cial hor­mo­nes. Examp­les of hor­mone-free con­tracep­tion include the sym­ptoher­mal method, tem­pe­ra­ture method, cycle com­pu­ter or bar­rier methods.

People whose gen­der iden­tity lies out­side the binary gen­der sys­tem and who iden­tify neit­her as a man nor as a woman (e.g. queer)

Mens­trua­tion occurs too infre­quent. It is a form of mens­trual dis­or­der cha­rac­te­ri­zed by a mens­trual cycle that is too long. This is the case when the total cycle is more than 35 days (maxi­mum 90). Due to chan­ges in hor­mo­nal balance, oli­go­menor­rhoea occurs mainly after the men­ar­che or before meno­pause and is nor­mal during this period. 

Ova­rian cyst
A sack-like cavity for­med in or on the ova­ries and fil­led with fluid, which is usually harm­less The ova­rian cyst can have a dia­me­ter of a few mil­li­me­tres to over 15 cm. 

Part of the pri­mary sexual cha­rac­te­ris­tics where eggs and sex hor­mone are produced. 

The moment in which the unfer­ti­li­sed egg is ejec­ted from the ovary and then recei­ved by the fallo­pian tube. In a healthy and natu­ral mens­trual cycle, ovu­la­tion takes place perio­di­cally and is often in the middle of the cycle. Around ovu­la­tion are the fer­tile days.

Ovu­la­tion blee­ding
Inter­me­diate blee­ding that can occur at the time of ovu­la­tion (middle of the mens­trual cycle). 

Inserts made of absor­bent mate­rial to absorb mens­trual fluid out­side the vagina. Pads are worn in the under­wear There are both dis­po­sable pads and was­ha­ble cloth pads.

Panty liners
Inserts made of absor­bent mate­rial to absorb mens­trual fluid out­side the vagina. It is a smal­ler and nar­rower ver­sion of pads and are the­re­fore not as absor­bent. Panty liners are worn in the under­pants. There are both dis­po­sable panty liners and was­ha­ble cloth panty liners.

Pel­vic floor
Tis­sue-mus­cu­lar floor of the pel­vic cavity in humans.

Time bet­ween pre- and post­me­no­pause, which is a sign of phy­sio­lo­gi­cal aging. It lasts one to two years before and after the actual menopause. 

see mens­trua­tion

Period calen­dar
A mens­trual calen­dar helps you to observe and bet­ter under­stand your own cycle. It can also be used to cal­cu­late the next period or your period for a few mon­ths in advance. The first and last day of your period are recored in the period calen­dar. During the mens­trual cycle, other cha­rac­te­ris­tics such as mood swings or tem­pe­ra­ture can also be registered.

Period pain
Pain that occurs during mens­trua­tion. They are a form of cycle irregularities. 

Period poverty
Period poverty exists when mens­trua­ting people can­not afford mens­trual pro­ducts for finan­cial rea­sons. The lack of afford­a­ble pro­ducts leads to people resor­ting to other alter­na­ti­ves such as (dirty) pie­ces of fab­ric or grass. This can have health consequences.

Period under­wear
Mens­trual under­wear has several lay­ers of fab­ric in the crotch area and the­re­fore has addi­tio­nal func­tions. It is, so to speak, a pair of under­wear with a was­ha­ble pad sewn into it. The dif­fe­rent fab­rics ensure that the inti­mate area remains dry and the mens­trual blood is absor­bed. The mens­trual under­wear is was­ha­ble like nor­mal under­wear and the­re­fore reusable.

Peti­tion "The period is not a luxury - lower the tam­pon tax"
Nanna-Jose­phine Roloff and Yase­min Kotra tog­e­ther laun­ched the peti­tion and found over 190,000 sup­por­ters on the plat­form. The peti­tion demands that mens­trual pro­ducts be con­si­de­red basic needs in Ger­many and be taxed at the sim­pli­fied VAT rate of seven per­cent. This is because the incre­a­sed tax rate of 19 per­cent discri­mi­na­tes against all mens­trua­ting people. The peti­tion and the tireless efforts of the two mens­trual acti­vists were suc­cess­ful and from Janu­ary 2020, mens­trual pro­ducts will be taxed at only the seven per­cent rate in Germany.

Hor­mo­nal con­tracep­tive which use is widespread. There are dif­fe­rent types of pills that must be taken orally at the same time every day (except for the week-long pill breaks). The hor­mo­nes in the pill sup­pres­ses the matu­ra­tion of the egg and thus also ovulation.

Poly­cystic Ova­rian Syn­drome (PCOS)
Hor­mo­nal meta­bo­lic dis­or­der cau­sed by a com­plex hor­mo­nal imba­lance. The PCO syn­drome can be the cause of infer­ti­lity due to the cycle alterations. 

A too fre­quent mens­trua­tion. It is a form of mens­trual dis­or­der cha­rac­te­ri­zed by a mens­trual cycle that is too short. This is the case when the total of the mens­trual cycle is less than 24 days.

Dura­tion of about twelve mon­ths after the last menstruation.

Post­mens­trual blee­ding
Spot­ting after mens­trua­tion is a mens­trual disorder. 

Period of time during which a fer­ti­li­sed egg cell in the body matures into a child. The pregnancy cal­cu­la­ted from the first day of the last mens­trua­tion lasts an average of 40 weeks. Tra­di­tio­nally, the dura­tion of a pregnancy is given as nine mon­ths. Howe­ver, the fluc­tua­tion range covers several weeks.

First irre­gu­la­ri­ties in the mens­trual cycle and occa­sio­nal absence of mens­trua­tion. These chan­ges in the mens­trual cycle are trig­ge­red by the decline in pro­ges­te­rone levels.

Pre­mens­trual blee­ding
The spot­ting before mens­trua­tion is a mens­trual disorder. 

Pre­mens­trual Syn­drome (PMS)
Pain and dis­com­fort a few days before the start of mens­trua­tion. These can be very dif­fe­rent com­p­laints, such as sto­mach or hea­da­ches, as well as mood swings.

Is a cor­pus luteum hor­mone and belongs to the group of sex hor­mo­nes. Pro­ges­te­rone is mainly pro­du­ced in the second phase of the cycle. It pro­mo­tes the growth of the ute­rine lining so that a fer­ti­li­sed egg can suc­cess­fully nest there. The con­cen­tra­tion of pro­ges­te­rone in the body chan­ges greatly during the mens­trual cycle. 

Part of ado­lescence, where the body chan­ges and gra­dual deve­lo­p­ment takes place. During this time the incre­a­sed pro­duc­tion of sex hor­mo­nes begins. They cause the repro­duc­tive organs to become functional. 

Seed cycling
It is a natu­ral form of nut­ri­tio­nal sup­ple­men­ta­tion. The intake of cer­tain seeds is inten­ded to gently sup­port the hor­mone balance in case of imba­lance. The aim is to bring the natu­ral mens­trual cycle into a healthy balance and to relieve mens­trual pro­blems. The four dif­fe­rent seeds (pump­kin seeds, flax seed, sesame, sun­flower seeds) are taken in the dif­fe­rent pha­ses of the cycle. The oils, vit­amins and nut­ri­ents con­tai­ned in the seeds sup­port the body's own pro­duc­tion of est­ro­gen or progesterone. 

Soft cup
Modi­fi­ca­tion of the mens­trual cup, which is also used to collect the mens­trual blood inside the vagina. It is a plastic ring cove­red by a fle­xi­ble foil. Due to the fle­xi­bi­lity and mate­rial of the soft cup it takes up less space than a mens­trual cup and can also be worn during sex. Many designs have to be thrown away after only wea­ring them once. The reus­able alter­na­tive is made of medi­cal sili­cone and can be used for up to two years. 

Light blee­ding, which can occur bet­ween two peri­ods. It is often an unex­pec­ted brow­nish discharge that lasts one to three days. Regard­less of the actual mens­trua­tion, spot­ting can start at any time. The cause is usually a hor­mo­nal shift in the body.

Sym­pto­ther­mal method
Hor­mone-free con­tracep­tive method, which is part of natu­ral family plan­ning. This method is based on deter­mi­ning the fer­tile days in the natu­ral mens­trual cycle. For this pur­pose, both the chan­ges in basal body tem­pe­ra­ture and the cer­vi­cal mucus are ana­ly­sed tog­e­ther. It is a com­bi­na­tion of the tem­pe­ra­ture method with the Bil­lings method. The ana­ly­sis and docu­men­ta­tion can be sup­por­ted by a con­tracep­tion com­pu­ter or software. 

Tam­pon tax
Mens­trual pro­ducts were taxed in Ger­many until the end of 2020 with the incre­a­sed tax rate, also known as the luxury tax, of 19 per­cent. After much lob­by­ing and a peti­tion, two mens­trual acti­vists from Ham­burg mana­ged to change the tax rate for mens­trual pro­ducts. As of Janu­ary 2020, all mens­trual pro­ducts (except panty liners, as they are con­si­de­red ever­y­day items) in Ger­many will be sub­ject to the lower tax rate of only seven per­cent, which counts for basic necessities.

Tam­pons are used during mens­trua­tion and usually con­sist of com­pres­sed cot­ton wool. They are inser­ted into the vagina to directly absorb the mens­trual blood inside the body. They are used once and thrown away afterwards.

Tem­pe­ra­ture method
Hor­mone-free con­tracep­tive method, which is part of natu­ral family plan­ning. This method is based on deter­mi­ning the fer­tile days in the natu­ral mens­trual cycle. For this pur­pose the basal body tem­pe­ra­ture is mea­su­red every morning. Based on the cycli­cal fluc­tua­tions of the basal body tem­pe­ra­ture, the time of ovu­la­tion and thus also the fer­tile and infer­tile days can be determined.

Toxic Shock Syn­drome (TSS)
Severe cir­cu­la­tory and organ fail­ure cau­sed by bac­te­rial toxins. More com­monly the Toxic Shock Syn­drome is also known as 'tam­pon disease'. 

People who do not iden­tify with the sex to which they were assi­gned at birth.

Ute­rine lining
The thin, pink-colou­red mucous mem­brane forms the inner wall of the ute­rus to pro­tect it and enable the implan­ta­tion of a fer­ti­li­sed egg. During the mens­trual cycle, hor­mo­nes influ­ence the con­sis­tency and quan­tity of the mucous mem­brane. During mens­trua­tion, the upper layer of the ute­rine lining is bro­ken down and dischar­ged. During pregnancy, the lining of the ute­rus is cal­led decidua.

Part of the geni­tal organs that extends from the outer cer­vix to the ope­ning of the fallo­pian tubes. The ute­rus is simi­lar in shape to an upside-down pear and is a hol­low organ in which the egg nests and deve­lops after fer­ti­li­sa­tion. The ute­rus is also invol­ved in the birth of the child due to its pro­noun­ced mus­cle layer.

Pri­mary sexual organ, which has a tubu­lar shape and con­nects the outer cer­vix with the vagi­nal ves­ti­bule. The vagina opens into the vagi­nal ves­ti­bule of the vulva and is bet­ween eight and twelve cen­ti­me­tres long. It pro­tects the sexual organs that lie deeper in the body. As part of the birth canal, it is fle­xi­ble. In ever­y­day lan­guage the term vagina is often used incor­rectly to refer to the vulva as a whole. 

Vagi­nal flora
Natu­rally exis­ting micro­bial colo­niz­a­tion of the vagina, which con­sists mainly of dif­fe­rent types of lac­tic acid bac­te­ria. It is respon­si­ble for ensu­ring that harm­ful germs can­not mul­ti­ply dis­pro­por­tio­na­tely. The natu­ral pH value of the vagi­nal flora pre­vents germs from multiplying. 

Vagi­nal ves­ti­bule
Part of the vulva that lies bet­ween the labias. Around the vagi­nal ves­ti­bule there are glands that are respon­si­ble for mois­tening the vagina. 

Sexual dys­func­tion or pain dis­or­der, which can be both orga­nic and psy­cho­lo­gi­cal. It is a per­sis­tent or recur­rent invol­un­tary cram­ping or ten­sion of the pel­vic floor and the outer third of the vagi­nal mus­cles, making the vagi­nal ent­rance appear very nar­row or as if clo­sed. The tight mus­cle con­trac­tion makes vagi­nal inter­course or a gynae­co­lo­gi­cal exami­na­tion pain­ful or even impossible. 

The ent­i­rety of the exter­nal pri­mary sexual organs. The vulva con­sists of the mons pubis, the labia, the ope­ning of the ure­thra, the vagi­nal ves­ti­bule and the cli­to­ris. A large part of the vulva is cove­red by hair star­ting at the begin­ning of puberty. In ever­y­day lan­guage, the vulva is often incor­rectly cal­led the vagina. 

Tantric term for the ent­i­rety of the vulva, vagina and ute­rus. The word also has other mea­nings, such as source or ori­gin. Yoni is unders­tood as a spi­ri­tual centre that con­nects the outer world with the inner darkness. 

Yoni stea­ming
Steam bath for the vulva. Also cal­led vulva steaming.

Zero waste mens­trua­tion
Use of reus­able pro­ducts during mens­trua­tion in order to avoid waste. The mens­trual period is desi­gned to be plastic-free and without dis­po­sable products. 

Your glossary all about menstruation

In our Mens­trual ABC you will find short and easy explana­ti­ons of col­lo­quial expres­si­ons and medi­cal terms rela­ting to mens­trua­tion, hor­mone-free con­tracep­tion and the ana­tomy of the geni­tals. Here you will find mens­trual know­ledge from A for ade­no­myo­sis to Z for zero waste mens­trua­tion.
Are you still mis­sing important terms in our glos­sary or have we exp­lai­ned some­thing not quite under­stand­a­ble? Then send us a mes­sage with your ideas and feed­back so that we can make the Mens­trual ABC even more com­pre­hen­sive and com­plete together.

If you would like to read more about a spe­ci­fic topic, you will find an over­view of all our publis­hed arti­cles in the archive, sor­ted by key­words. In our Period­ico you will find all arti­cles in chro­no­lo­gi­cal order.

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