Men­strual ABC

All | # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are cur­rently 109 names in this directory
Adenomy­osis
Wide­spread endo­met­ri­osis in the uterus.

Agnus Cas­tus
Is a medi­cinal plant that is taken for the nat­ural treat­ment of irreg­u­lar, too fre­quent or too rare men­stru­ation. The extract of the ripe, dried fruits influ­ences the hor­monal bal­ance and is med­ic­ally approved.

Amen­or­rhoea
Absence or lack of menstruation.

Anovu­la­tion
Absence or lack of ovulation.

Anovu­lat­ory cycle
No egg is released dur­ing the men­strual cycle.

Anti-Mueller hor­mone (AMH)
The AMH level indic­ates how many egg cells are still in the body and whether ovu­la­tion has occurred. It is an import­ant indic­ator in repro­duct­ive health 

Basal body tem­per­at­ure
Body tem­per­at­ure meas­ured in the morn­ing imme­di­ately after wak­ing up and before get­ting up. The basal body tem­per­at­ure changes dur­ing the men­strual cycle. Shortly after ovu­la­tion, it rises by a few tenths of a degree for at least three days in a row. This way ovu­la­tion and fer­tile days can be determ­ined ret­ro­spect­ively. In this way, the fol­low­ing infer­tile days can be determ­ined as well. Meas­ur­ing the basal body tem­per­at­ure is part of the tem­per­at­ure method for nat­ural contraception.

Billings method
A method of nat­ural con­tra­cep­tion that observes the change in the com­pos­i­tion of cer­vical mucus dur­ing the men­strual cycle. Shortly before and around ovu­la­tion the con­sist­ency of the mucus changes, which allows the fer­tile days of the cycle to be determined.

Bin­ary gender sys­tem
Assump­tion that there are only two sexes (male or female).

Cer­vical mucus
The milky-white to trans­par­ent secre­tion con­sists of rejec­ted cells and water and flows out of the vagina. The daily dis­charge is part of the nat­ural pro­cess of a healthy men­strual cycle and is pro­duced by glands in the cer­vix. Dur­ing the men­strual cycle, both col­our and con­sist­ency of the cer­vical mucus change. It pro­tects the uterus from germs. 

Cer­vical smear
The cer­vical smear is taken in the lower part of the cer­vical canal, often dur­ing the annual check-up with the gyn­ae­co­lo­gist. Among other things, the smear is used for the early detec­tion of cer­vical cancer.

Cer­vix
The cer­vix is the con­nec­tion between the uterus and the vagina. The nar­row sec­tion makes up the lower third of the uterus and pro­jects as the open­ing of the cer­vix into the upper part of the vagina. The nar­row open­ing, sur­roun­ded by mucous mem­brane, pro­tects the uterus from germs.

Cer­vix open­ing
Open­ing of the uterus. The uter­ine canal opens into the vagina.

Cis-women or Cis-man
People who identify with the sex to which they were assigned at birth.

Cli­mac­teric
Years of hor­monal changes, before and after the men­o­pause. It is the trans­ition from the fer­tile to the post­men­o­pausal phase in the life of a men­stru­at­ing per­son. Due to the decreas­ing estro­gen level, men­o­pause often brings about fluc­tu­ations in the men­strual cycle. 

Clit­oris
Sexual organ, the small part of which is vis­ible on the out­side at the upper end of the labia. It con­sists of two thighs which con­nect to the front of the body and lie inside the body. The clit­oris straight­ens up dur­ing sexual arousal due to the erectile tissue.

Cloth pad
Reusable pads are worn dur­ing men­stru­ation to absorb the men­strual blood out­side the body. They con­sist of dif­fer­ent lay­ers of absorb­ent mater­ial and are often made of cot­ton or hemp. They are washed after use and can be reused. Fab­ric pads are the sus­tain­able ver­sion of dis­pos­able pads because they can be used for many years. 

Cloth panty liners
Reusable panty liners are worn dur­ing light bleed­ing to absorb the men­strual fluid out­side the body. They are thin­ner and lighter than cloth pads and are also made of cot­ton. Fab­ric panty liners are the sus­tain­able ver­sion of dis­pos­able panty liners because they can be used for many years. 

Cloth tam­pons
The slightly dif­fer­ent and less known tam­pon ver­sion. Like other tam­pons, cloth tam­pons are inser­ted into the vagina where they absorb the men­strual blood dir­ectly. They are then washed and can be used again.

Cycle apps
Cycle apps help you to observe and bet­ter under­stand your own cycle. Based on the data entered, the app cal­cu­lates the next period or the period for sev­eral months in advance. The first and last day of your men­stru­ation are marked in the apps. In the course of the men­strual cycle, other char­ac­ter­ist­ics such as mood, symp­toms or tem­per­at­ure can also be noted.

Cycle aware­ness
Per­ceiv­ing the body as a cyc­lical being and learn­ing what influ­ence the cycle-related hor­mones have on needs and mood. To bet­ter under­stand the dif­fer­ent phases of the cycle and the asso­ci­ated qual­it­ies and to con­sciously integ­rate them into every­day life.

Cycle com­puter
Meas­ur­ing devices with which men­stru­at­ing people can determ­ine the fer­tile and infer­tile days. They digit­ally sup­port the meth­ods of hor­mone-free con­tra­cep­tion. For this pur­pose, vari­ous body char­ac­ter­ist­ics, such as basal body tem­per­at­ure, hor­mones in the morn­ing urine and the con­sist­ency of the cer­vical mucus are recor­ded and ana­lysed. Reg­u­lar and con­scien­tious use must be ensured so that the cycle com­puter can inter­pret the meas­ured val­ues correctly. 

Cycle dis­order
Changes in the nat­ural men­strual cycle that devi­ate from the norm. This includes the dur­a­tion, strength or rhythm of menstruation. 

Cycle length
Time from the first day of men­stru­ation to the day before the men­stru­ation starts again. Usu­ally it lasts between 25 and 34 days.

Cycle phases
The men­strual cycle is divided into two phases: The first half of the cycle is called the fol­licu­lar phase. It takes place between the begin­ning of men­stru­ation and the next ovu­la­tion. The second half of the cycle is called the luteal phase. It takes place between ovu­la­tion and the next menstruation. 

Cycle track­ing
Con­scious obser­va­tion of the men­strual cycle. In addi­tion to the begin­ning and end of men­stru­ation, other char­ac­ter­ist­ics such as mood, symp­toms or tem­per­at­ure are also registered. Cycle track­ing can be done either ana­log in a men­strual cal­en­dar or digit­ally in cycle apps. The aim of cycle track­ing is to gain a bet­ter under­stand­ing of your own body and the changes caused by your cycle. 

Dys­men­or­rhoea
Pain­ful or dif­fi­cult men­stru­ation with symp­toms such as cramps and pain in the abdomen.

Egg
Sex cell con­tain­ing all the genetic mater­ial of a men­stru­at­ing per­son that is passed on to the chil­dren. With the begin­ning of puberty, an egg cell matures in the ovar­ies dur­ing each men­strual cycle. Eggs are fer­til­is­able for a max­imum of 24 hours.

Endo­met­ri­osis
A chronic, very pain­ful dis­ease of people with a uterus. Out­side the uter­ine cav­ity, uncon­trolled growths of the uter­ine lin­ing form. The causes for the devel­op­ment of the dis­ease are still unknown. 

Estro­gen
Import­ant sex hor­mones that are mainly pro­duced in the ovar­ies. Estro­gen pro­mote the mat­ur­a­tion of the egg cap­able of fer­til­isa­tion and ensure that the uter­ine lin­ing is well cir­cu­lated with blood. The con­cen­tra­tion of estro­gen in the body changes sig­ni­fic­antly dur­ing the men­strual cycle. 

Fal­lopian tubes
Paired part of the sexual organs, which start from the uterus on both sides and end near the respect­ive ovary. The fal­lopian tubes are lined with mucous membrane. 

Fer­til­ity
Abil­ity to get preg­nant per men­strual cycle and give birth to an offspring. 

Fer­til­iz­a­tion
The moment in which the sperm and egg merge together. Fer­til­iz­a­tion takes place in the fal­lopian tube

First period
The first men­strual bleed­ing is also called men­arche. The begin­ning of men­stru­ation takes place dur­ing puberty. 

Fol­licu­lar phase
The first phase of the men­strual cycle in which the body pre­pares for fer­til­isa­tion of the mature egg. The follicle-stim­u­lat­ing hor­mone (FSH) increases dur­ing this phase, which even­tu­ally enables ovulation. 

Free bleed­ing
Dur­ing men­stru­ation, period products such as tam­pons, pads or men­strual cups are vol­un­tar­ily not used. The blood is there­fore not col­lec­ted by a for­eign object either inside or out­side the body. It is pos­sible to feel when blood is com­ing by con­sciously per­ceiv­ing one's own body. When free bleed­ing, the men­strual blood is finally dis­charged dir­ectly on the toi­let by relax­ing the pel­vic floor.

Gender star (*)
The spelling with the gender star (*) is an attempt to include the diversity of gender iden­tit­ies in the Ger­man language.

Gyn­ae­co­lo­gist
Spe­cial­ist in gyn­ae­co­logy and obstetrics.

Hor­monal con­tra­cep­tion
Hor­monal con­tra­cept­ive meth­ods influ­ence the hor­mone levels and usu­ally sup­press ovu­la­tion. The vari­ous con­tra­cept­ives are pre­scrip­tion-only. Even if they are used dif­fer­ently, they often have very sim­ilar res­ults and can have side effects. Hor­monal con­tra­cept­ive meth­ods include the pill, the vaginal ring, IUD or the con­tra­cept­ive patch. When used cor­rectly, hor­monal con­tra­cept­ives pro­tect against unwanted preg­nancy, but not against sexu­ally trans­mit­ted diseases. 

Hor­mone test­ing
Test strips are used to meas­ure hor­mones in the morn­ing urine. This is often done to determ­ine ovulation.

Hor­mones
The body's own bio­chem­ical mes­sen­gers, which are pro­duced by glands and trans­por­ted by blood. Hor­mones reg­u­late vari­ous pro­cesses in the body. 

Hyper­men­or­rhoea
Men­stru­ation that is too heavy. It is a form of men­strual dis­order char­ac­ter­ized by increased blood loss dur­ing men­stru­ation. This is the case when the blood loss per men­stru­ation is more than 80ml. 

Hypo­men­or­rhoea
Men­stru­ation that is too light. It is a form of men­strual dis­order char­ac­ter­ized by a weak and short men­strual bleed­ing. This is the case when the blood loss per men­stru­ation is less than 25ml. Light bleed­ing is often spotting.

Hys­ter­ec­tomy
Sur­gical removal of the uterus.

Infer­til­ity
Inca­pa­city to pro­cre­ate or con­ceive. In human medi­cine, infer­til­ity occurs when a couple does not con­ceive des­pite the desire to have chil­dren and have had at least one year of reg­u­lar unpro­tec­ted sexual intercourse.

Inter­me­di­ate bleed­ing
Bleed­ing from the uterus out­side the actual menstruation. 

Inter­men­strual pain
Pain that may occur at the time of ovu­la­tion (middle of the men­strual cycle). Usu­ally the pain is loc­al­ised on one side of the lower abdomen. 

Irreg­u­lar cycle
Men­strual cycles that last less than 24 or more than 35 days. This also includes men­strual cycles that vary by more than eight days from cycle to cycle. 

Labia
Part of the external gen­it­als. The term cov­ers both the outer and inner labia.

Luteal phase
Second phase of the men­strual cycle, which starts after ovu­la­tion and ends when men­stru­ation begins. It is an infer­tile men­strual phase. 

Men­o­pause
Men­stru­ation stops per­man­ently, which also ends fer­til­ity and the pos­sib­il­ity of pregnancy. 

Men­or­rha­gia
A men­stru­ation that is too long, which can last up to 14 days.

Men­strual Blood
Strictly speak­ing, men­strual blood is not just blood, but rather a mix­ture of blood, rejec­ted uter­ine lin­ing, the unfer­til­ized egg and vaginal mucus. Other dead cells are also found in the tis­sue mix. Only about half of the fluid con­sists of blood. 

Men­strual cup
Small reusable con­tain­ers that dir­ectly col­lect the men­strual blood inside the body. They mostly have a cup-like shape, are made of med­ical sil­ic­one and are inser­ted into the vagina. 

Men­strual cycle
The men­strual cycle begins with the first day of men­stru­ation and ends with the day before the next period. It usu­ally lasts between 25 and 34 days. It is a reg­u­larly occur­ring pro­cess in the body of a men­stru­at­ing per­son, which is repeated about 400 times from puberty to men­o­pause. The men­strual cycle is char­ac­ter­ized by hor­monal changes. 

Men­strual irreg­u­lar­it­ies
Irreg­u­lar­it­ies of the bleed­ing rhythm in the men­strual cycle. A dis­tinc­tion is made between too fre­quent and too infre­quent men­stru­ation. / Irreg­u­lar­it­ies of the bleed­ing pat­tern in the men­strual cycle. A dis­tinc­tion is made between too heavy and too light menstruation. 

Men­strual prob­lems
Vari­ous symp­toms that can occur before and dur­ing men­stru­ation. These include, for example, cramps, nausea, head­aches, a feel­ing of ten­sion in the breasts, gen­eral malaise.

Men­strual sponges
Pure nat­ural product for men­stru­ation that can be reused. Basic­ally, the applic­a­tion is sim­ilar to that of tam­pons, because they are inser­ted into the vagina where they dir­ectly col­lect the men­strual blood. 

Men­stru­at­ing people
Term for all people who exper­i­ence men­stru­ation. Because not all women men­stru­ate and not all men­stru­at­ing people identify them­selves as women.

Men­stru­ation
Dur­ing men­stru­ation, the lin­ing of the uterus is shed each month and the men­strual blood is dis­charged through the vagina. It is a nat­ural, reg­u­lar and bio­lo­gical pro­cess that sym­bol­izes the health and fer­til­ity of a men­stru­at­ing per­son. The men­strual period lasts on aver­age about 5 days. Men­stru­ation is also called period or bleeding.

Mons pubis
Slight hilly elev­a­tion just above the labia, caused by an accu­mu­la­tion of fatty tis­sue. From puberty onwards, hair grows on here.

Mood swings
Dur­ing the men­strual cycle, vari­ous hor­mones are involved to vary­ing degrees, res­ult­ing in nat­ural mood swings. Depend­ing on the phase of the cycle a per­son is in, the emo­tional situ­ation also changes. 

Nat­ural fam­ily plan­ning (NFP)
Includes all con­tra­cept­ive meth­ods that do not affect hor­mones or the body in gen­eral. There are there­fore no side effects. Nat­ural con­tra­cept­ive meth­ods are based on the men­strual cycle and determ­ine both the fer­tile and infer­tile days of a men­stru­at­ing per­son. Fer­til­isa­tion of the egg is pre­ven­ted without the help of arti­fi­cial hor­mones. Examples of hor­mone-free con­tra­cep­tion include the symp­to­hermal method, tem­per­at­ure method, cycle com­puter or bar­rier methods.

Non-bin­ary
People whose gender iden­tity lies out­side the bin­ary gender sys­tem and who identify neither as a man nor as a woman (e.g. queer)

Oli­gomen­or­rhoea
Men­stru­ation occurs too infre­quent. It is a form of men­strual dis­order char­ac­ter­ized by a men­strual cycle that is too long. This is the case when the total cycle is more than 35 days (max­imum 90). Due to changes in hor­monal bal­ance, oli­gomen­or­rhoea occurs mainly after the men­arche or before men­o­pause and is nor­mal dur­ing this period. 

Ovarian cyst
A sack-like cav­ity formed in or on the ovar­ies and filled with fluid, which is usu­ally harm­less The ovarian cyst can have a dia­meter of a few mil­li­metres to over 15 cm. 

Ovar­ies
Part of the primary sexual char­ac­ter­ist­ics where eggs and sex hor­mone are produced. 

Ovu­la­tion
The moment in which the unfer­til­ised egg is ejec­ted from the ovary and then received by the fal­lopian tube. In a healthy and nat­ural men­strual cycle, ovu­la­tion takes place peri­od­ic­ally and is often in the middle of the cycle. Around ovu­la­tion are the fer­tile days.

Ovu­la­tion bleed­ing
Inter­me­di­ate bleed­ing that can occur at the time of ovu­la­tion (middle of the men­strual cycle). 

Pad
Inserts made of absorb­ent mater­ial to absorb men­strual fluid out­side the vagina. Pads are worn in the under­wear There are both dis­pos­able pads and wash­able cloth pads.

Panty liners
Inserts made of absorb­ent mater­ial to absorb men­strual fluid out­side the vagina. It is a smal­ler and nar­rower ver­sion of pads and are there­fore not as absorb­ent. Panty liners are worn in the under­pants. There are both dis­pos­able panty liners and wash­able cloth panty liners.

Pel­vic floor
Tis­sue-mus­cu­lar floor of the pel­vic cav­ity in humans.

Per­i­meno­pause
Time between pre- and post­men­o­pause, which is a sign of physiolo­gical aging. It lasts one to two years before and after the actual menopause. 

Period
see men­stru­ation

Period cal­en­dar
A men­strual cal­en­dar helps you to observe and bet­ter under­stand your own cycle. It can also be used to cal­cu­late the next period or your period for a few months in advance. The first and last day of your period are recored in the period cal­en­dar. Dur­ing the men­strual cycle, other char­ac­ter­ist­ics such as mood swings or tem­per­at­ure can also be registered.

Period pain
Pain that occurs dur­ing men­stru­ation. They are a form of cycle irregularities. 

Period poverty
Period poverty exists when men­stru­at­ing people can­not afford men­strual products for fin­an­cial reas­ons. The lack of afford­able products leads to people resort­ing to other altern­at­ives such as (dirty) pieces of fab­ric or grass. This can have health consequences.

Period under­wear
Men­strual under­wear has sev­eral lay­ers of fab­ric in the crotch area and there­fore has addi­tional func­tions. It is, so to speak, a pair of under­wear with a wash­able pad sewn into it. The dif­fer­ent fab­rics ensure that the intim­ate area remains dry and the men­strual blood is absorbed. The men­strual under­wear is wash­able like nor­mal under­wear and there­fore reusable.

Peti­tion "The period is not a lux­ury - lower the tam­pon tax"
Nanna-Josephine Roloff and Yasemin Kotra together launched the peti­tion and found over 190,000 sup­port­ers on the change.org plat­form. The peti­tion demands that men­strual products be con­sidered basic needs in Ger­many and be taxed at the sim­pli­fied VAT rate of seven per­cent. This is because the increased tax rate of 19 per­cent dis­crim­in­ates against all men­stru­at­ing people. The peti­tion and the tire­less efforts of the two men­strual act­iv­ists were suc­cess­ful and from Janu­ary 2020, men­strual products will be taxed at only the seven per­cent rate in Germany.

Pill
Hor­monal con­tra­cept­ive which use is wide­spread. There are dif­fer­ent types of pills that must be taken orally at the same time every day (except for the week-long pill breaks). The hor­mones in the pill sup­presses the mat­ur­a­tion of the egg and thus also ovulation.

Poly­cystic Ovarian Syn­drome (PCOS)
Hor­monal meta­bolic dis­order caused by a com­plex hor­monal imbal­ance. The PCO syn­drome can be the cause of infer­til­ity due to the cycle alterations. 

Poly­men­or­rhoea
A too fre­quent men­stru­ation. It is a form of men­strual dis­order char­ac­ter­ized by a men­strual cycle that is too short. This is the case when the total of the men­strual cycle is less than 24 days.

Post­men­o­pause
Dur­a­tion of about twelve months after the last menstruation.

Post­men­strual bleed­ing
Spot­ting after men­stru­ation is a men­strual disorder. 

Preg­nancy
Period of time dur­ing which a fer­til­ised egg cell in the body matures into a child. The preg­nancy cal­cu­lated from the first day of the last men­stru­ation lasts an aver­age of 40 weeks. Tra­di­tion­ally, the dur­a­tion of a preg­nancy is given as nine months. How­ever, the fluc­tu­ation range cov­ers sev­eral weeks.

Pre­men­o­pause
First irreg­u­lar­it­ies in the men­strual cycle and occa­sional absence of men­stru­ation. These changes in the men­strual cycle are triggered by the decline in pro­ges­ter­one levels.

Pre­men­strual bleed­ing
The spot­ting before men­stru­ation is a men­strual disorder. 

Pre­men­strual Syn­drome (PMS)
Pain and dis­com­fort a few days before the start of men­stru­ation. These can be very dif­fer­ent com­plaints, such as stom­ach or head­aches, as well as mood swings.

Pro­ges­ter­one
Is a cor­pus luteum hor­mone and belongs to the group of sex hor­mones. Pro­ges­ter­one is mainly pro­duced in the second phase of the cycle. It pro­motes the growth of the uter­ine lin­ing so that a fer­til­ised egg can suc­cess­fully nest there. The con­cen­tra­tion of pro­ges­ter­one in the body changes greatly dur­ing the men­strual cycle. 

Puberty
Part of adoles­cence, where the body changes and gradual devel­op­ment takes place. Dur­ing this time the increased pro­duc­tion of sex hor­mones begins. They cause the repro­duct­ive organs to become functional. 

Seed cyc­ling
It is a nat­ural form of nutri­tional sup­ple­ment­a­tion. The intake of cer­tain seeds is inten­ded to gently sup­port the hor­mone bal­ance in case of imbal­ance. The aim is to bring the nat­ural men­strual cycle into a healthy bal­ance and to relieve men­strual prob­lems. The four dif­fer­ent seeds (pump­kin seeds, flax seed, ses­ame, sun­flower seeds) are taken in the dif­fer­ent phases of the cycle. The oils, vit­am­ins and nutri­ents con­tained in the seeds sup­port the body's own pro­duc­tion of estro­gen or progesterone. 

Soft cup
Modi­fic­a­tion of the men­strual cup, which is also used to col­lect the men­strual blood inside the vagina. It is a plastic ring covered by a flex­ible foil. Due to the flex­ib­il­ity and mater­ial of the soft cup it takes up less space than a men­strual cup and can also be worn dur­ing sex. Many designs have to be thrown away after only wear­ing them once. The reusable altern­at­ive is made of med­ical sil­ic­one and can be used for up to two years. 

Spot­ting
Light bleed­ing, which can occur between two peri­ods. It is often an unex­pec­ted brown­ish dis­charge that lasts one to three days. Regard­less of the actual men­stru­ation, spot­ting can start at any time. The cause is usu­ally a hor­monal shift in the body.

Symp­to­thermal method
Hor­mone-free con­tra­cept­ive method, which is part of nat­ural fam­ily plan­ning. This method is based on determ­in­ing the fer­tile days in the nat­ural men­strual cycle. For this pur­pose, both the changes in basal body tem­per­at­ure and the cer­vical mucus are ana­lysed together. It is a com­bin­a­tion of the tem­per­at­ure method with the Billings method. The ana­lysis and doc­u­ment­a­tion can be sup­por­ted by a con­tra­cep­tion com­puter or software. 

Tam­pon tax
Men­strual products were taxed in Ger­many until the end of 2020 with the increased tax rate, also known as the lux­ury tax, of 19 per­cent. After much lob­by­ing and a peti­tion, two men­strual act­iv­ists from Ham­burg man­aged to change the tax rate for men­strual products. As of Janu­ary 2020, all men­strual products (except panty liners, as they are con­sidered every­day items) in Ger­many will be sub­ject to the lower tax rate of only seven per­cent, which counts for basic necessities.

Tam­pons
Tam­pons are used dur­ing men­stru­ation and usu­ally con­sist of com­pressed cot­ton wool. They are inser­ted into the vagina to dir­ectly absorb the men­strual blood inside the body. They are used once and thrown away afterwards.

Tem­per­at­ure method
Hor­mone-free con­tra­cept­ive method, which is part of nat­ural fam­ily plan­ning. This method is based on determ­in­ing the fer­tile days in the nat­ural men­strual cycle. For this pur­pose the basal body tem­per­at­ure is meas­ured every morn­ing. Based on the cyc­lical fluc­tu­ations of the basal body tem­per­at­ure, the time of ovu­la­tion and thus also the fer­tile and infer­tile days can be determined.

Toxic Shock Syn­drome (TSS)
Severe cir­cu­lat­ory and organ fail­ure caused by bac­terial tox­ins. More com­monly the Toxic Shock Syn­drome is also known as 'tam­pon disease'. 

Trans­gender
People who do not identify with the sex to which they were assigned at birth.

Uter­ine lin­ing
The thin, pink-col­oured mucous mem­brane forms the inner wall of the uterus to pro­tect it and enable the implant­a­tion of a fer­til­ised egg. Dur­ing the men­strual cycle, hor­mones influ­ence the con­sist­ency and quant­ity of the mucous mem­brane. Dur­ing men­stru­ation, the upper layer of the uter­ine lin­ing is broken down and dis­charged. Dur­ing preg­nancy, the lin­ing of the uterus is called decidua.

Uterus
Part of the gen­ital organs that extends from the outer cer­vix to the open­ing of the fal­lopian tubes. The uterus is sim­ilar in shape to an upside-down pear and is a hol­low organ in which the egg nests and devel­ops after fer­til­isa­tion. The uterus is also involved in the birth of the child due to its pro­nounced muscle layer.

Vagina
Primary sexual organ, which has a tubu­lar shape and con­nects the outer cer­vix with the vaginal ves­ti­bule. The vagina opens into the vaginal ves­ti­bule of the vulva and is between eight and twelve cen­ti­metres long. It pro­tects the sexual organs that lie deeper in the body. As part of the birth canal, it is flex­ible. In every­day lan­guage the term vagina is often used incor­rectly to refer to the vulva as a whole. 

Vaginal flora
Nat­ur­ally exist­ing micro­bial col­on­iz­a­tion of the vagina, which con­sists mainly of dif­fer­ent types of lactic acid bac­teria. It is respons­ible for ensur­ing that harm­ful germs can­not mul­tiply dis­pro­por­tion­ately. The nat­ural pH value of the vaginal flora pre­vents germs from multiplying. 

Vaginal ves­ti­bule
Part of the vulva that lies between the labias. Around the vaginal ves­ti­bule there are glands that are respons­ible for moisten­ing the vagina. 

Vagin­is­mus
Sexual dys­func­tion or pain dis­order, which can be both organic and psy­cho­lo­gical. It is a per­sist­ent or recur­rent invol­un­tary cramp­ing or ten­sion of the pel­vic floor and the outer third of the vaginal muscles, mak­ing the vaginal entrance appear very nar­row or as if closed. The tight muscle con­trac­tion makes vaginal inter­course or a gyn­ae­co­lo­gical exam­in­a­tion pain­ful or even impossible. 

Vulva
The entirety of the external primary sexual organs. The vulva con­sists of the mons pubis, the labia, the open­ing of the urethra, the vaginal ves­ti­bule and the clit­oris. A large part of the vulva is covered by hair start­ing at the begin­ning of puberty. In every­day lan­guage, the vulva is often incor­rectly called the vagina. 

Yoni
Tan­tric term for the entirety of the vulva, vagina and uterus. The word also has other mean­ings, such as source or ori­gin. Yoni is under­stood as a spir­itual centre that con­nects the outer world with the inner darkness. 

Yoni steam­ing
Steam bath for the vulva. Also called vulva steaming.

Zero waste men­stru­ation
Use of reusable products dur­ing men­stru­ation in order to avoid waste. The men­strual period is designed to be plastic-free and without dis­pos­able products. 

Your gloss­ary all about menstruation

In our Men­strual ABC you will find short and easy explan­a­tions of col­lo­quial expres­sions and med­ical terms relat­ing to men­stru­ation, hor­mone-free con­tra­cep­tion and the ana­tomy of the gen­it­als. Here you will find men­strual know­ledge from A for adenomy­osis to Z for zero waste men­stru­ation.
Are you still miss­ing import­ant terms in our gloss­ary or have we explained some­thing not quite under­stand­able? Then send us a mes­sage with your ideas and feed­back so that we can make the Men­strual ABC even more com­pre­hens­ive and com­plete together.

If you would like to read more about a spe­cific topic, you will find an over­view of all our pub­lished art­icles in the archive, sor­ted by keywords. In our Peri­od­ico you will find all art­icles in chro­no­lo­gical order.

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